The electric arc furnace uses the high temperature generated by the electrode arc to melt ores and metals. Gas discharge to form an arc when the energy is very concentrated, the arc area temperature in the 3000 ℃ or more. For melting metal, electric arc furnace than other steelmaking furnace process flexibility, can effectively remove sulfur, phosphorus and other impurities, furnace temperature is easy to control, equipment covers an area of small, suitable for the melting of high-quality alloy steel.
1, The electric arc furnace uses electricity as the main energy source. Electricity through the graphite electrode and the furnace charge discharge arc, producing high temperatures of up to 2000 ~ 6000 ℃ or more, to the arc radiation, temperature convection and heat conduction of the way to melt the scrap steel materials. During most of the time when the furnace charge is melted, the high temperature heat source is surrounded by the charge, and the heat loss caused by high temperature exhaust gases is relatively small, so the thermal efficiency is higher than other steelmaking equipment such as converters. In addition, electric heating is easy to precisely control the furnace temperature and can be operated under any conditions such as oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, atmospheric pressure or vacuum according to the process requirements.
2, Electric arc furnace steelmaking process is short, simple equipment, easy to operate, relatively easy to control pollution, low construction investment, small footprint, do not need to rely on a ponderous ironmaking system like the converter steelmaking.
3, The electric arc furnace steelmaking is highly adaptable to the furnace charge, it takes ore or scrap as the main raw material, but can also use iron (blast furnace or furnace iron), sponge iron (DRI) or hot briquettes (HBI), pig iron lump and other solid and liquid iron-containing raw materials.